Philosophical systems, resting upon the formal, metaphysical logic, are already incapable to reduce the accumulated knowledge to a definite system and to comprehend accumulated errors in a system of physical and mathematical theories. Therefore, in the third millennium, such philosophical systems must become outdated as, in a considerable degree, one-sided, i.e., only partially right and, hence, as ineffective ones.

Dialectics represents a synthesis of the best achievements of both materialism and idealism, and it is the ground for understanding of the material-ideal essence of the World. The main postulates of the dialectical philosophy and the advantage of the dialectical logic over the metaphysical logic are briefly presented in the authors' (L. Kreidik and G. Shpenkov) books.

Physics that we develop is called dialectical because it rests upon dialectics - dialectical philosophy, dialectical logic, and algebra of dialectical judgments. Dialectics indicates the correct directions of theoretical thought and, thus, excludes an appearance of unfounded (fictitious) ideas and absurd contradictions. Dialectical physics develops a general theory of matter-space-time and of the wave fields of exchange (interaction) of matter-space and rest-motion. In dialectical models of nature, the logical triad of matter-space-time expresses an indissoluble bond of matter, space, and time. The logical pair of motion-rest presents an indissoluble bond of motion and rest, etc.

The primordial principal point of natural science always is the structure of matter and its "elementary" bricks, atoms. The lasts belong to one of the levels of the many-level Universe where the perfect harmony between micro-, macro-, and mega-levels (e.g., subatomic, atomic, molecular, etc.) takes place. The internal structure of atoms is inseparable from the structure of the Universe on the whole. Accordingly, atoms cannot be considered separately from the general structure of the Universe that is the principal feature of dialectical approach. In dialectics, the atomic world is considered in the indissoluble relation with the stellar world, since both worlds mutually define each other.

We live in the multi-dimensional physical space of the Universe. Atomic theory of matter-space-time, developing in the framework of dialectics, rests upon the physical infinite-dimensionality of the real field of matter-space-time. The real physical many-dimensional space and the space of matter are considered in the indissoluble relation with the field-space of physical time. All three spaces-fields do not exist separately; therefore, we regard physical processes and objects of nature as elements of this triad of matter-space-time.

Along with the laws of physical fields of matter-space-time, which we call the first kind laws, dialectical physics accepts the laws of ideal field-spaces of the Universe called the second kind laws. The universal law of exchange of matter-space and motion-rest lies in the basis of all first kind laws. All particular first kind laws originate from this universal law.

One of the second kind laws - the Law of Decimal Base of the Universe with the fundamental period equal to *2ϖlge* units - exhibits itself in the Earth's nations' metrology, in the quantitative spectrum of arbitrary measures and characteristic parameters of different objects and processes in nature. There are many reasons to regard this law as the Decimal Code of the Universe. We assume that it connects the Past and the Future in a single process of Eternity. Many characteristic parameters of the micro-world are on the lines of this discrete spectrum.

In contrast to the fully developed tradition, based on the description of nature with use of the notion of probability of games of chance, dialectics proposes a theory of the physical probability. The physical probability is represented by waves of probability. These waves represent a theoretical prognosis of physical waves of matter-space-time; therefore, the waves of probability are defined by the same measures as the physical waves. In form, the waves of probability coincide with the physical waves of matter-space-time. By virtue of this, there are no problems with the interpretation of waves of probability, because they represent a mathematical copy of realized waves of the most probable exchange of matter-space-time.

Such a general picture of the waves of probability allows the writing of wave equations and the obtaining on their basis the wave prognosis-picture of real processes and states of nature (including those that concern atoms of matter-space-time). With such a generalized approach, there is no necessity (as it takes place, e.g., in quantum mechanics) to introduce quantum numbers and parameters that are absent in the wave equations themselves. The new approach leads to the periodic law of elementary structural units of matter-space-time, revealing the nature of Mendeleyev's Periodic Table from the new point of view.

In the same way that symmetry and asymmetry, rest and motion, left and right are inseparable from one another, the world of the infinitesimal (micro-world) and the world of infinitely the great (mega-world) go alongside each other in the physical infinite-dimensional spaces of the Universe. Micro- and mega-parameters of an atom and its components define this mutual conjugation. But modern physics does not characterize atoms by mega-parameters, because it does not know such features of individual atoms. Therefore, modern physics is bound to attach together different levels of an infinite series of fields of matter-space-time. Accordingly, unification of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions is the greatest unsolved problem of physics. Dialectical physics proposes convincing logically non-contradictory solutions to this subject as well.

On the basis of the universal law of exchange, the real sense of the notion mass is revealed. As it turns out, a mass has the associated feature and is the measure of exchange of any object in the Universe of matter-space and rest-motion (matter-space-time briefly) with the surrounding field-space. Through this, the nature of charges, "electric" and "magnetic", is revealed.

Dialectical physics shows the imperfections and errors of commonly used theories of measures. Measures of dialectical physics do not contain units with half-integer powers of the gram and the centimeter, both explicitly and implicitly. It gives the possibility (when we know the dimensionality of a physical quantity) to draw responsible scientific conclusions about the structure of objects or phenomena of nature, which are described by this dimensionality. In particular, it concerns the nature of charges.

The system of measures of dialectical physics has only three qualitative reference units: the gram, the centimeter, and the second related to a triad of matter-space-time. All remaining qualitative units are referred to the category of derivative units. Qualitative units represent the first kind laws. The fundamental quantitative units originate from the Law of the Decimal Code of the Universe and represent the second kind laws. Both basic systems of units, quantitative and qualitative, form together a quantitative-qualitative frame of the system used in dialectical physics.

Theoretical analysis of completed calculations shows that the electrostatic field does not exist in nature. Actually it is an exafrequency wave field. Its fundamental frequency defines many structures of matter-space-time at the subatomic and atomic levels. The exafrequency field of exchange of subatomic levels of matter-space-time is hidden under the term of the electrostatic field. Quantum mechanics accidentally touches upon this field because it deals with the so-called wave function, not understanding however the wave sense of the function and its complex structure. Therefore, it operates with the modulus squared of the wave function.

In view of the omnipresent character of quantum mechanics, at the present stage of development of science, in particular of atomic physics and atomic technologies, it increases the definite danger of the further existence of quantum mechanics in science, as the theory in the highest degree distortedly describes the World. This is most important, as in the course of many decades, the opinion, in which quantum mechanics perfectly describes the micro-world, has been propagated and strengthened in the consciousness of many people. With this, ideologists of these views have ignored the fact that the correspondence of any theory with the experiment does not quite mean that the given theory is true and uniquely possible (it concerns quantum electrodynamics as well). And what is more, the possibilities of modern mathematics are so impressive that it can represent any abstract absurdity as a profound theory (or its development) and fit it to the experiment.

Our knowledge about nature must be concrete as far as possible. It concerns, in particular, the spatial structure of atoms. Nanotechnology, where dimensions of devices tend towards magnitudes comparable with parameters of crystal lattices and less, i.e., to atomic sizes, requires it. Unfortunately, it is not an objective of modern physics because of the domination of quantum mechanics with its postulate of the impossibility to imagine a clear spatial structure of micro-objects of the atomic and subatomic levels.

A part of the aforementioned problems, considered in the framework of the dialectical approach, are concisely presented here in the posted papers. Their list will be gradually supplemented.