The main universal components of the theoretical foundation of all physical science, i.e., the paradigm of physics, are the following two:
2) Methodology for choosing base concepts.
The base concepts are setting down in the hypotheses put forward and are used further in the theoretical constructions developed on their basis to describe the phenomena and processes in Nature discovered and observed experimentally.
Conceptual basis of modern physics. Modern theoretical concepts of physics about the structure of the World around us were formed within the framework of the concepts of the so-called Standard Model (SM), which has now become a dogma.
However, it should be recognized that, being built on postulates, SM is inadequate to reality . Naturally, modern theories adhering to the SM are also inadequate to reality, which is intuitively felt by many, and therefore these theories, together with the SM, are being reasonably criticized by an increasing number of physicists.
Unfortunately, the latter, criticizing, offer their solutions mainly to replace or improve some of the formed particular theories, selected sections of these theories, individual laws, regulations, etc., while remaining within the existing paradigm of physics.
That is, in fact, the proposed solutions fundamentally in no way affect the generally established paradigm, common to all branches of physics. They do not question the main conceptual base of physics, its root foundation.
On this foundation, the most basic theories dominating in physics are built: the theory of the structure of elementary particles (Standard Model), as well as the theory of the structure of atoms – quantum-mechanical, which is a development of the planetary nuclear model of Bohr-Rutherford.
The aforementioned theories of elementary particles and atoms, as noted above, are inadequate to reality [3, 4]. Somehow answering the questions: how? They usually do not answer the questions: why?
Let us note the main positions of the paradigm that modern physics follows.
The paradigm of modern physics. The philosophical basis and scientific method followed by modern physics are as follows:
1) The philosophical basis of modern physics is materialistic ideas about the structure of the Universe, as well as adherence to formal (metaphysical) logic.
Materialistic concepts and formal logic one-sidedly reflect reality; they do not take into account the dual nature of the World, and therefore are inadequate to reality
2) The essence of the main method that physicists follow when choosing basic concepts for hypotheses, and any theory begins with them, is a game of imagination – an arbitrary introduction as a theoretical basis of abstract-mathematical postulates (as, for example, it is the case in quantum mechanics based on seven postulates!).
Thus, to describe physical objects, processes and phenomena, to reconcile experimental data with calculated ones, obtained from hypothetical theoretical constructions as the latter develop and turn them into complete theories, it is customary to introduce postulates.
In other words, subjectivism and fantasy dominate in modern physics (“Imagination is more important than knowledge”, A. Einstein). In the above-mentioned quantum mechanics, the appearance of fantastic ideas is associated, in particular, with the ignorance of the physical meaning (the belief that there is no such meaning) in the imaginary component of the complex wave function [5-8].
Unfortunately, it has not been noticed that following within the framework of the above-mentioned philosophical basis and scientific method was questioned in official physics. And this is surprising, because, you see, both main components of the existing paradigm of physics are inadequate to reality. Therefore, reliance on them cannot lead to anything good, and did not lead to, what we see in reality.
Indeed, formal logic reflects reality only partially, its possibilities are limited to its use in digital devices (computers, robotic systems, it serves as an algebra of contact elements, etc.). Formal logic cannot work to describe physical processes where everything is in dynamics, in continuous motion . As for the abstract mathematical postulates, the latter, in general, have nothing to do with reality.
As a result, in the process of developing theories on the indicated inadequate basis (foundation), dubious theoretical constructions are created from a pile of postulated (fictional) ideas and concepts.
The most striking example (among others), the crown of such creations, is the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED) , which is based on a number of postulates, in particular, the postulated Dirac equation, which is the result of Dirac's relativistic generalization in 1928 of the Schrödinger equation – a postulate of quantum mechanics (mentioned above).
Many may be shocked by the author's findings concerning QED, which is considered in physics "... one of the most successful physical theories developed so far ..." , and quantum mechanics . But nevertheless, theoretical physicists will have to come to terms with the conclusions obtained, disappointing for them, made on the basis of a deep and comprehensive analysis, sufficiently convincing and reasoned, which is contained, in particular, in the works cited above. These conclusions are not questioned, since they are based on facts that cannot be denied.
An adequate paradigm of physics
What are the main components of the paradigm of physics, that is, what is the philosophical basis and scientific method of physics – the science of Nature in the most general sense, which studies the most general forms of motion, phenomena and processes in it, what should physics adhere to?
First of all, the paradigm of physics must be adequate to reality.
This criterion is met by the following two components:
1) The philosophical basis of physical theories should be dialectical philosophy adequate to reality and dialectical logic – dialectics, in accordance with which the Universe is a binary material-ideal system in which there is a unity and an inextricable bond between the ideal (immaterial, spiritual) and the material.
That is, along with matter, there is its polar opposite – a non-material something: intangible, rational, mysterious, which has the energy necessary to create matter and life and maintain their existence; determines our mind, intellect, thoughts; order, patterns, continuity of oscillatory-wave motion, that is, sets the rhythm and harmony in the Universe. The ideal component of the Universe as a system also includes the information field, which contains knowledge about everything and everyone, number fields, laws of nature, etc.
The term dialectics means the ability to see and reflect through concepts of opposite sides of nature. In the broad sense of this word, dialectics is the skill of a multifaceted description of the object of thought and the logical formation of the prediction of necessary and possible events. Dialectics is considered, therefore, as the logic of cognition as a whole, that is, in essence, it is the logic of philosophy and all sciences .
In accordance with dialectics, everything in the Universe is in continuous oscillatory-wave motion and all objects and phenomena in it have a wave nature. This is an axiom - something that is obvious to be true. And physical theories must take into account this truth in order to be adequate to reality.
2) The method of choosing adequate basic concepts for hypotheses and theories should be, respectively, a dialectical approach, which consists in reconciling the adopted basic concepts with the concepts of dialectical philosophy and dialectical logic. This method does not allow the introduction of any abstract postulates, that is, it excludes subjectivism and fantasy.
With the rejection of the existing inadequate reality of the paradigm of physics, the corresponding adequate theories began to appear on the basis of the adopted above-mentioned new adequate paradigm to replace the corresponding inadequate reality theories dominating in physics. So far there are only two of them and they are devoted to the description of the most elementary material formations of which the dense-material component of the World around us consists.
What specific theories developed within the framework of the new paradigm are we talking about? A new adequate paradigm, the essence of which is presented above, forms the basis of a new general physical theory , which we called the Wave Model (WM) . We often call it dialectical physics. The Wave Model includes (by now) two main theories: the theory of the structure of elementary particles – the Dynamic Model (DM) of elementary particles [13, 14] and the theory of the structure of atoms – the Shell-Nodal model of atoms .
The developed theories of the Wave Model are unique. The fact is that so far these are the only theories that rely on an adequate paradigm of physics, in contrast to all other known and currently developed theories that adhere to the paradigm accepted in physics, and, accordingly, to the inadequate Standard Model dominating in physics.
As a result of the paradigm shift, unique results have been obtained within the framework of WM theories, and a number of key discoveries have been made .
Several books, chapters in books, about a hundred articles published in various sources, their list is given on the author's website , as well as videos (about 30) posted on YouTube  are devoted to the discoveries of the Wave Model.
To understand all the details of WM theories, you should study them from the basics. The most consistent foundations of the theory of WM are presented in 6 volumes of lectures of the author .
In the theories of WM, which revise on a new adequate basis the dubious, in our opinion, existing solutions, fundamental parameters-constants of Nature, discovered in WM, are used. Until now, modern physics did not know anything about their existence.
The basic information gathered together about these parameters is summarized in the article “ On previously unknown key fundamental physical parameters-constants; discoveries of the Dynamic Model ”, from which the material presented here is taken, and in which the above references are contained:
George P. Shpenkov